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Strontium has been shown to be beneficial to the animal and human skeleton, and only a few epidemiological studies have documented adverse effects of elemental strontium on bone. 4.4. The allocation from drinking water is assumed to be half of the total potential exposure, with the balance from the formula itself, as supported by the exposure data from Section 5. ICRP Publication 67. Clin. U.S. EPA (1994b). NSE does not maintain water quality data for private supplies; however, the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) maintains a database of raw groundwater chemistry that includes municipal, registered, and private groundwater supplies. J. Clin. The strontium levels in Canadian drinking water will vary greatly depending on geological formations and anthropogenic activities, including mining and manufacturing operations. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches. Water Research Foundation. (2000). Données du Programme d’acquisition de connaissances sur les eaux souterraines du Québec : De 1941 à 2012, 1328 analyses du strontium ont été réalisées dans 1261 puits individuels ou installations de production d’eau potable alimentées en eau souterraine. Strontium reacts with water slowly, generally to strontium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Protelos: summary of product characteristics. Effect of exposure to trace elements in the soil on the prevalence of neural tube defects in a high-risk area of China. However, many animal studies have observed bone abnormalities (rickets, with reduced bone mineralization and osteoid accumulation) following exposure to high doses of strontium. A multi-element profile of housedust in relation to exterior dust and soils in the city of Ottawa, Canada. The province will continue to monitor for strontium at the current frequency and will introduce strontium removal treatment systems as necessary in new well systems. Available at: www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/food-nutrition-surveillance/canadian-total-diet-study/dietary-intakes-contaminants-other-chemicals-different-sex-groups-canadians/average-dietary-intakes-day-trace-elements-canadians-different-sex-groups-total-diet-study-1993-1996.html . Effects of stable strontium administration on calcium metabolism with particular reference to low calcium diet. Environ. Hamilton, S.M. Sep. Sci. and Stolyarov, V.P. U.S.G.S. Sep. Purif. The calcium-sensing receptor is involved in strontium ranelate-induced osteoclast apoptosis. J. Dent. File: L020. Strong-acid ion exchange for removing barium, radium, and hardness. Standards and risk management division. Trace contaminant removal with nanofiltration. RA-55524. Australas. No paragraph was submitted by the province. Water Sci. J. Toxicol. Int., 14 Suppl 3: S56–65. A prolonged mineralization lag time was also observed at 0.4% Sr chloride. Bortun, A.I., Bortun, L.N. (2016). (1984). Relat. Maisons-Alfort (ed.). PSUR assessment report. Ann. Harrison, G.E., Sutton, A., Shepherd, H. and Widdowson, E.M. (1965). (1985), which observed bone toxicity in weanling rats at low doses. Full scale and bench scale studies on the removal of strontium from water. Storey, E. (1962). Taylor & Francis. Effects of strontium ranelate on bone formation in the mid-palatal suture after rapid maxillary expansion. Chem. Technol., 1: 6–12. Jpn. (2011). Effects of long-term calcium intake on body weight, body fat and bone in growing rats. What are the environmental effects of strontium in water? Contributions from other sources are not expected to be significant for this age group; and. Am. Kaufman, J.M., Audran, M., Bianchi, G., Braga, V., Diaz-Curiel, M., Francis, R.M., Goemaere, S., Josse, R., Palacios, S., Ringe, J.D., Felsenberg, D. and Boonen, S. (2013). Removal efficiency of water purifier and adsorbent for iodine, cesium, strontium, barium, and zirconium in drinking water. In powdered form, strontium undergoes spontaneous ignition (is pyrophoric) when exposed to air. The proposed MAC is protective of potential health effects, can be reliably measured by available analytical methods, and is achievable by municipal and residential scale treatment technologies. Determination of metals and trace elements in water and wastes by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Rasmussen, P.E., Subramanian, K.S. As public drinking water supplies are currently not required to test for strontium in drinking water, this analysis may underestimate the number of facilities that will exceed the proposed MAC, particularly registered supplies, as data was only available for 35 % of systems. You have 1 free answer left. Gerke, T.L., Little, B.J., Luxton, T.P., Scheckel, K.G., and Maynard, J.B. and Szabo, J. Software available for download from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Boron and strontium isotope ratios and major/trace elements concentrations in tea leaves at four major tea growing gardens in Taiwan. Phys. Chapter 6 in: Distribution water quality challenges in the 21st century, 1st edition. (2009). Calcif. Efficacy and safety of currently marketed anti-osteoporosis medications. Myers, A.G., Snoeyink, V.L. ICRP (1993). and Jessiman, B.J. Wiley-VCH. Br. Prot., 35(3): 659–676. Pharmacol., 157(7): 1291–1300. Structural studies of human alkaline phosphatase in complex with strontium: implication for its secondary effect in bones. J. Cell. The effect of strontium and manganese on freshly isolated chondrocytes. Total Environ., 409(3): 447–451. GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, In: Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, Madrid, Spain, May 23–28, 2004). Toxicology, 205(3): 157–172. 6th edition. Strontium and caries: a long and complicated relationship. (2010). ICRP 23 (3–4). Intermittent bone changes and multiple cartilage defects in chronic strontium rickets in rats. It is also a by-product of nuclear reactors and the highly energetic radiation is applied in for example space vehicles. Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Environment and Conservation (2015). Clifford, D.A. and MacDonald, N.S. Strontium ranelate: long-term efficacy against vertebral, nonvertebral and hip fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Rabideau, A.J., van Benschoten, J., Patel, A. and Bandilla, K. (2005). (2012). Health, 2(6): 1297–1304. Strontium and barium have reactivities similar to lithium in Group 1 of the Periodic Table. Influence of ion size and charge in nanofiltration. Determination of trace elements in waters and wastes by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Res., 77(2): 109–116. Ober, J.A. (1963). Division of Safety and Radiation Protection, Berichte des Forschungszentrums Jülich (ed.). Pharmacol., 41(6): 543–549. The thyroid histopathology observed at the high dose of the Kroes et al. The human body contains approximately 4.6 ppm strontium. (1987). This may produce strontium metal, which is not applied widely, but it may extract residue air from vacuum tubes. Osteoporos. Of the 294 surface water sources in the province, 251 (85%) are protected under the Water Resources Act. and Kulbitskaya, L.V. (1977). Available at: https://info.ornl.gov/sites/publications/Files/Pub57520.pdf. Rheumatology (Oxford), 48 Suppl 4: iv9–13. (2004). U.S. Geological Survey. For facilities that exceed the proposed MAC, additional costs will be associated with the purchase, installation, operation and maintenance of treatment devices (e.g. For these reasons, an HBV of 7.0 mg/L was derived to be protective of infants as the most sensitive population, based on decreased bone mineralization from a study in young rats. and Horr, C.A. Finally, rats treated with strontium had lower serum parathyroid hormone, potentially lowering bone remodelling and decreasing renal calcium reabsorption (Oste et al., 2005). Ba (s) + 2H 2 O (g) → Ba (OH) 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Int., 20(10): 1663–1673. The ATSDR (2004) calculated an intermediate oral minimal risk level of 2 mg/kg bw per day based on skeletal toxicity (alterations in the appearance of the cartilage plate) in rats. Ontario Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Release—Data 283–Revised. Health Canada (available upon request). Strontium is an alkaline earth metal, like barium, calcium and magnesium. Res., 62(9): 989–991. Based on strontium's chemical properties, expo… Available at: www.icrp.org/publication.asp?id=ICRP%20Publication%2067. (IRPA 1 Rome). (2014). (1997). Osteoporos. J. Biol. Arch. Schrooten, I., Cabrera, W., Goodman, W.G., Dauwe, S., Lamberts, L.V., Marynissen, R., Dorrine, W., De Broe, M.E. and D'Haese, P.C. Brennan, T.C., Rybchyn, M.S., Green, W., Atwa, S., Conigrave, A.D. and Mason, R.S. Environ. Madison, Wisconsin, pp. What are the health effects of strontium in water? Strontium-calcium interrelationships in the growing rat. Kinetics of strontium and calcium skeletal metabolism in the rat. Strontium is present in many drinking water sources, both naturally and as a result of human activities. In what way and in what form does strontium react with water? Strontium readily reacts with water to form strontium hydroxide. and Ren, Z.F. (ed.). American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation,  Washington, DC. (2014). Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, 51 pp. Gerontol. The incorporation and removal of large amounts of strontium by physiologic mechanisms in mineralized tissues. (2012). and van Esch, G.J. Arch. and Boivin, G. (2011). Calcif. Sr(s)+ 2 H2O(l)Sr(OH)2(aq)+ H2(g) Quantitative analysis. (1978). The focus of this document is limited to strontium’s chemical properties. (2005). Sci., 8(3): 180–191. J. Clin. Kaplan, L.J. Med. Header search input. Abrahamsen, B., Grove, E.L. and Vestergaard, P. (2014). Reginster, J.Y., Neuprez, A., Dardenne, N., Beaudart, C., Emonts, P. and Bruyere, O. Long-term treatment with strontium ranelate increases vertebral bone mass without deleterious effect in mice. Water Works Assoc., 72 (7):411–422. Transplant., 17 (Suppl 2): 30–34. There is inadequate evidence to assess the carcinogenic potential of oral exposure to strontium in humans or animals, as no specific cancer studies in animals using oral exposure are available. Strontium is only a dietary requirement in a few exceptional cases. (2016). Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China. Strontium ranelate lives to fight another day. (2004). Indian. EMA (2014). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for strontium exposure in rat. Canadian community health survey, cycle 2.2, nutrition. Med. Mater., 151(2–3): 432–445. Crit. The position of strontium ranelate in today's management of osteoporosis. Available at: www.medicines.org.uk/ emc/medicine/15410#rmm . PID=4604. Meunier, P.J., Roux, C., Ortolani, S., Diaz-Curiel, M., Compston, J., Marquis, P., Cormier, C., Isaia, G., Badurski, J., Wark, J.D., Collette, J. and Reginster, J.Y. Osteoblasts play key roles in the mechanisms of action of strontium ranelate. Rheum. Water quality and treatment: a handbook of community water supplies, 5th edition. Available at: http://sis.agr.gc.ca/cansis/publications/miscellaneous/1979-minor/1979-minor-elements.pdf . (2003). En49-15/22F-PDF. 1.417 mg/kg bw per day is the TDI, as derived above; 7 kg is the average body weight for infants 0–6 months of age (Health Canada, 1994); 0.5 is the allocation factor estimated for drinking water. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia. The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: a forgotten hormone important for health. Moreover, strontium has been used in health products to treat osteoporosis, and animals receiving strontium (0.27–0.3%) in food or drinking water have shown beneficial effects in skeletal parameters (Marie and Hott, 1986; Grynpas et al., 1996; Delannoy et al., 2002; Li et al., 2012). EMA (2013). J. Based on the TDI calculated above, Health Canada has derived a HBV for strontium in drinking water, based on non-breastfed infants, as follows: The HBV is 6.613 mg/L, rounded to 7.0 mg/L. Res., 41, 2785–2791. Calcium, for example, reacts fairly vigorously with cold water in an exothermic reaction. (1961). Public Health Rev., 32: 267–283. Human health risk assessment for priority substances. Alternative practitioners believe that strontium supplements can prevent osteoporosis because a similar medication, cal… Bone Joint Surg. Sivaiah, M.V., Venkatesan, K.A., Krishna, R.M., Sasidhar, P. and Murthy, G.S. Opin. Pilot study of advanced water treatment processes to purify secondary effluent. The potential regulatory implications of strontium. Drug Saf., 33(7): 579–591. The usefulness of strontium as an adjuvant to calcium in the remineralization of the skeleton in man. Dong, D., Derry, L.A. and Lion, L.W. Given this information, the introduction of this document is unlikely to have significant impact on BC drinking water supply systems. Endocrinology, 140(12): 5883–5893. and Abdel-Moniem, N.M. (2006). Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268. J. Are we monitoring in the right places for metals and radionuclides? Bone, 51(1): 93–97. Competition between calcium, strontium, and magnesium for absorption in the isolated rat intestine. Increased bone strontium levels in hemodialysis patients with osteomalacia. Strontium is a bone-seeking element, of which 98% in the human body can be found in the skeleton. Pharmacol., 31(4): 423–427. Munns, C.F., Shaw, N., Kiely, M., Specker, B.L., Thacher, T.D., Ozono, K. et al. Ouvrard, S., Simonnot, M-O. Health Canada (2009). Cabrera, W.E., Schrooten, I., De Broe, M.E. Provincial, regional and national summary data tables. I-71 Ottawa. A distinction between the pharmacological and toxic doses. Low calcium intake and/or vitamin D deficiency are recognized causes of rickets (Munns et al., 2016). Both values on bone tissue growth and mineralization of the newly formed tissue were reported. and Barltrop, D. (1971). The study chosen to derive the health-based value (HBV) in drinking water is Marie et al. Research Branch. New insights into the associated signaling pathways. (2010). Water Res., 103:319–333. The calcium:strontium ratio of water concentrations can vary, depending on the types of rocks the water is sourced from; situations in which humans are exposed to high strontium and lower calcium in drinking water cannot be excluded (see Section 4.0). This is calculated by dividing 425 mg/kg bw per day by the uncertainty factor of 300. EPA 402-R-99-004B. For registered supplies, we evaluated strontium data from 2009 as this year represented our largest data set. Nutr. Rickets and soil strontium. In terms of drinking water treatment, recent studies have shown that higher pressure membrane treatment systems such as reverse osmosis and nanofiltration can effectively remove strontium from drinking water. Hunt, J.R., Hunt, C.D., Zito, C.A., Idso, J.P. and Johnson, L.K. A number of deep sea organisms apply strontium sulphate in shells, and stone corals also have a requirement for the element. In soluble form sodium always occurs as Na + ions. Removing barium and radium through calcium cation exchange. Sips, A.J., van der Vijgh, W.J., Barto, R. and Netelenbos, J.C. (1996). These interactions can alter the morphology, arrangement and maturation of bone cells (e.g., osteoblasts), as observed in vitro and in vivo in rats fed high-strontium diets (Matsumoto, 1976; Verberckmoes et al., 2003; Oste et al., 2005; Fischer et al., 2011) and can impact bone cell functions such as collagen synthesis and matrix vesicle releases (Anderson, 1995; Kirsch et al., 2003; Oste et al., 2005). Ghosh, S., Talukder, G. and Sharma, A. Nutr., 106(10): 1475–1483. The relation between caries prevalence and strontium concentrations in drinking water, plaque, and surface enamel. and Kaats, G.R. Moderate strontium loading induces rickets in rats with mild chronic renal failure. The Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is responsible for extensive monitoring for inorganic parameters, including strontium, in the province. In fact, there were 150 cases of rickets reported by pediatricians in Canada between 2002 and 2004 in children up to 18 years old with low serum levels of vitamin D (Ward et al., 2007). Skoryna, S.C. (1981). Scand. Relationship between mineral and trace element concentrations in drinking water and gastric cancer mortality in Japan. Bone Joint Surg. pp. Strontium has been shown to lower calcium serum levels and to be concentrated at the osteoid calcification front (Schrooten et al., 1998; Shibata and Yamashita, 2001). AWWA (2014). Available at: http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-2003-196/. The highest strontium levels identified through multiyear chemistry sampling (i.e., metal scans) in public and semi-public water systems are generally lower than 2 mg/L and well below the proposed MAC. Drug Des. Chemical technology division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. Health Canada (2007a). Br., 44-B: 194–208. Removal of strontium from drinking water: pilot and full scale studies. (1954). Volume II: Review of geochemistry and available Kd values for cadmium, cesium, chromium, lead, plutonium, radon, strontium, thorium, titanium and uranium. Human biokinetics of strontium. Osborne, V., Layton, D., Perrio, M., Wilton, L. and Shakir, S.A. (2010). Clin. Biochem., 359(1–2): 399–407. Summary review of performance of metal mines subject to the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations in 2012. and De Broe, M.E. Get access. Trace Elem. Roux, C., Fechtenbaum, J., Kolta, S., Isaia, G., Andia, J.B. and Devogelaer, J.P. (2007). and Penn, M. (2008). (2009). and Singer, L. (1968). Un total de 30 (2,3 %) des échantillons prélevés ont présenté un résultat supérieur à la CMA proposée de 7 mg/L (7000 μg/L), ce qui touche 26 (2,1 %) puits individuels ou installations de production d’eau potable échantillonnés. Strontium absorption and excretion in normocalciuric subjects: relation to calcium metabolism. Matsumoto, A. 29–58. Tissue Int., 67(2): 122–127. Bone material quality in transiliac bone biopsies of postmenopausal osteoporotic women after 3 years of strontium ranelate treatment. Dietary reference intakes tables. Since the highest rate of bone remodelling occurs during the first year of life, and the growth rates of long bones decrease with increasing age, infants are considered to be the sensitive subpopulation for strontium toxicity. Strontium metal burns in air to produce both strontium oxide and strontium nitride , but since it does not react with nitrogen below 380 °C, at room temperature, it forms only the oxide spontaneously. Sci., 24(2): 94–101. Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et de la Lutte contre les changements climatiques, Consultation on strontium in drinking water, 4.0 Identity, use and sources in the environment, 5.6 Multi-route exposure through drinking water, 6.2.1 Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), 6.2.2 Flame atomic absorption/atomic absorption spectrometry, 7.0 Treatment technology and distribution system considerations, 7.1.2 Conventional coagulation/filtration, 7.1.6. J. Clin. Name the other two. ETV report: Removal of chemical contaminants in drinking water - EcoWater systems incorporated ERO-R450E Drinking Water Treatment System. and Hott, M. (1986). Effect of low doses of stable strontium on bone metabolism in rats. The aggregation could lead to increased interactions with the organic and cellular components of the matrices. 111 pp. Finally, the BMD models had poor variance (p-value of 0.02 for adequacy of variance) suggesting they would not be optimal to use in the current context. Prot., 35(1): 87–127. Available at: www.ingentaconnect.com/content/wef/ wefproc/2011/00002011/00000014/art00046?crawler=true. Snoeyink, V.L., Cairns-Chambers, C. and Pfeffer, J.L. The risk of radioactive strontium intake is mainly based on its carcinogenic and mutagenic mechanism, problems that occur in cell division, and possible increased infant mortality. Rheum. (2006). Dial. Res., 112: 212–217. Rb (p, 4n) 82. Res. MV2011L2-0004. Biophys., 53(3): 551–557. Calcif. Nova Scotia’s drinking water program consists of both public and private supplies. EMA (2012). Pharmacol., 26(6): 675–681. (1969). Grynpas, M.D., Hamilton, E., Cheung, R., Tsouderos, Y., Deloffre, P., Hott, M. and Marie, P.J. The binding of strontium, a larger atom than calcium, and the higher carbonate content of the mineral can expand and change the structure of the apatite lattice, decrease crystal formation and growth, and increase the hydroxyapatite solubility—possibly decreasing the bone matrice stability during bone resorption processes, increasing dissolution (Skoryna, 1981; Christoffersen et al., 1997; Cabrera et al., 1999; Verberckmoes et al., 2004; Oste et al., 2005). Health Protection Agency. Total Environ., 267(1–3): 125–140. Properties of strontium carbonate: Strontianite. Strontium ferrite is applied in permanent ceramic magnets that are highly coercive and can be applied in small engines because of its resistance to heat and corrosion. Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship (2016). Strontium minerals. Marie, P.J. ISBN-978-0-85951-621-1. (2015). Tissue Res., 2(3): 242–252. Prot., 35(3): 677–694. Kulyukhin, S.A., Krasavina, E.P., Mizina, L.V., Rumer, I.A., Tanashchuk, N.V. and Konovalova, N.A. J. Toxicol. Tohoku J. Exp. European Medicines Agency, EMA/235924/2014, London, United Kingdom. Personal communication with D. Reid and K. Pongar. Accumulation of arsenic in drinking water distribution systems. Minor elements in Canadian soils. An up-to-date list of accredited certification organizations can be obtained from the SCC (. Querido, W., Rossi, A.L. Mol. A., 93(3): 115–120. The extremity of the carcinogenic and mutagenic mechanisms was not described adequately so far. Expert Opin. Understanding variation in partition coefficient, Kd Values. McGraw-Hill, New York, New York. Land Resource Research Institute Contribution No. Fourth revised edition. McCauley, R.F. point of use reverse osmosis, ion exchange softening devices). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Studies of sorbent/ion exchange material for the removal of radioactive strontium from liquid radioactive waste and high hardness groundwater. Pi, M. and Quarles, L.D. Eisenberg, E. and Gordan, G.S. Svanstrom, H., Pasternak, B. and Hviid, A. Strontium and barium have reactivities similar to that of lithium. Trace element levels in drinking water and the incidence of colorectal cancer.