In SA 2 samples, grasses (Mann–Whitney test, U = 1.965, p = 0.049) and monocots (U = 2.116, p = 0.034) decreased while dicots (U = 3.479, p = 0.001) and culms (U = 3.712, p < 0.001) increased. Percent similarities (PS) of sika deer fecal sample compositions between Mt Yatsugatake (YT) and the Japanese South Alps (SA), collected from different vegetational zones in August (light) and November (dark) 2011. Native to Sri Lanka and India, the Axis deer were brought to the United States in 1932 and … The vegetation is a deciduous broadleaved forest at SA 1 in the montane zone (SA 1, Fig. In August, the mean proportion of dwarf bamboo in YT 1 samples was 55.4%, which was significantly greater than in YT 2 samples (0.1%; Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 23.079, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 3.963, p = 0.000) and YT 3 samples (0.2%; t2 = 3.862, p = 0.000; Fig. Crude protein content in sika deer feces collected from Mt Yatsugatake (YT 1–3) and the Japanese South Alps (SA 1–3) in August and November 2011. and Acer spp., and both deer showed strong selectivity for E. verrucosus, E. alatus and Populus davidiana (EI>0.85) in spite of their low availability. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Sike deer have a varied diet, which they adapt to their environment. Choosing hunting areas that provide some of these food sources may aid your hunting success. Brandishing a brightly flushed face and leaving her dignity at the door, Kristen managed to find a gap and charged her way through like a blocker to the end zone. Funding – This study was partly supported by Natural Parks Foundation (Volunteer Fund for Nature Conservation 2011). For the SA samples obtained in August, no significant difference was found between SA 1 and SA 2 samples (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 29.375, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 0.292, p = 0.954), but SA 3 samples had significantly higher crude protein than SA 2 samples (t2 = 6.480, p = 0.000). Marsh grasses, fallen leaves, trees, brushy vegetation, herbs, fungi, ground ferns, poison ivy, soybeans and corn. Females may associate with several males in order to gain access to a variety of feeding grounds. (2014) analyzed the factors associated with this phenomenon and showed that the range expansion occurred in areas with less snow. In central Japan, they inhabit subalpine and alpine zones from June to November, and then descend to lower elevations during the winter (Izumiyama and Mochizuki 2008, Izumiyama et al. The proportion of dicots in the samples obtained at high elevation seemed to be greater than those at low elevation in YT (Fig. Grasses were also relatively abundant in the feces at the subalpine zones (in August, 49.9% at YT 2, 33.3% at SA 2; in November, 47.3% at YT 2, 21.5% at SA 2). In SA, monocots (10–20%) and dicots (10–20%) were both prevalent. Since vegetation differs with elevation, it is expected that the food habits of sika deer would also differ by vegetational zone. This is because, depending on where you live, these food sources can be nearly impossible to grow. The water content was determined using the atmospheric pressure drying method (135°C for 2 h). Sika deer not only excert effects on plants but also on abundance of birds (Okuda et al. (Photo by Will Parson/Chesapeake Bay Program), A sika deer feeds on underwater grasses near the Chesapeake Bay Foundation’s Karen Noonan Center in Dorchester County, Md., on Aug. 2, 2017. Mating & Reproduction in Sika Deer In Europe the breeding season or rut for Cervus nippon takes place between September and November. The sika deer is regarded as sacred in Japan. 2000, Igota et al. There were more grasses in samples obtained at higher elevation. The proportion of culms seemed to increase with elevation (Fig. I had sika … The deer cause vegetational changes and land degradation (Chubu Forest Management Office 2007, 2008, 2010, Nagaike 2012, Masuzawa 2015). The sika deer is a small, brown elk introduced from Asia that lives in quiet marshes and forested wetlands on the lower Eastern Shore of Maryland. In SA 3 samples, only fiber decreased from August to November (U = 2.728, p = 0.006). This is simply because dwarf bamboos were abundant only at YT 1. The PS values were significantly different between the lower elevation montane zone (YT 1, SA 1) and the subalpine zones (YT 2, SA 2) (August: Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 210.134, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –11.895, p = 0.000; November: Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 156.252, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –3.184, p = 0.004) and the subalpine and the higher elevation alpine zones (YT 3, SA 3) (August: Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –5.837, p = 0.000, November: Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –10.244, p = 0.000). Fecal samples were washed over a 0.5 mm aperture sieve, and the remaining material was microscopically analyzed using the point-frame method (Chamrad and Box 1964, Takatsuki 1978). We analyzed sika deer fecal samples from Mt Yatsugatake (YT) and the Japanese South Alps (SA). 2004). The proportion of grasses in YT 2 samples (49.5%) was higher than that in YT 1 samples (15.4%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 21.263, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –3.780, p = 0.000), but the proportions in YT 2 and YT 3 samples (56.4%) were not significantly different (χ2 = –2.041, p = 0.103). Sika deer show a north–south variation in diet, from northern grazing populations to southern browsing populations . Predators Wolf, black and brown bears. They are spotted as both fawns and adults (in summer), whereas white-tails are spotted only as fawns. The mean temperature ranges from –1.6°C in February to 22.5°C in August, and the mean annual precipitation is 1499 mm at Minami-arupusu Town at a foothill of SA. They have a smaller head and shorter legs compared to other more common deer. 4). 4) Our qualitative observations of habitats indicated that grasses were abundant in the alpine zone (Fig. akaishimontanum. You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. The proportion of culms was not different between SA 1 (25.6%) and SA 2 samples (25.0%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 1.235, p = 0.539; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 0.416, p = 0.909), but SA 2 samples had significantly more culms than SA 3 samples (10.0%, t2 = 2.837, p = 0.013). The proportions of coniferous leaves in the feces were more at these subalpine sites than at other vegetational zones. Sika deer, the graceful spotted deer of Japanese and Chinese art, originally were native to Asia from far-east Russia to Vietnam to the islands of Japan and Taiwan. Since only Siberian dwarf pine Pinus pumila shrubs and alpine meadows dominated by Calamagrostis hakonensis, Veratrum album and Potentilla matsumurae grew in the alpine zones (Chubu Forest Management Office 2010), the landscape is open, which is less preferred by sika deer (Takatsuki 1989b). Location map of Mt Yatsugatake (YT) and the Japanese South Alps (SA). 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